The Fourth Crusade in the early years of the 13th century was used by the western allies as a pretext to conquer Byzantium.
In March 1204, the crusaders and the Venetians agreed to partition the empire: one quarter of its territory would be allocated to the newly created Latin empire of Constantinople, while the remainder would be divided equally between the leaders of the crusade and Venice.
References in western primary sources to the Byzantine emperors and their families have also been incorporated.
General historical information has been extracted and incorporated from secondary sources.
The Komnenos family of emperors succeeded in 1057 after Isaakios Komnenos defeated the imperial army of Emperor Mikhael VI Stratiotikos, the unpopular successor appointed by Empress Theodora.
Years of corruption and outside aggression had depleted the empire of economic resources and territory.
He carried out a major reorganisation of the administration of the empire, aimed at lightening the bureaucracy, and introduced a range of new titles which he distributed to the numerous potential challengers from his own and other ex-imperial families: in descending order of precedence, sbastos, protosbastos, panhypersbastos, sbastohypertatos, pansbastohypertatos, and protopansbastohypertatos.
Emperor Alexios resumed the process of reconstruction.
He also created the office of logothetis ton sekreton, in charge of all civil administration of the empire.
The themes (regional provinces) were reduced in size and importance.
It is not known whether Isaakios was older or younger than his sister Maria.
The Alexeiad names "Isaakios and Alexios" when recording that they had "an elder brother Manuel, the first-born of all the children [of] Ioannes Komnenos" and states that Isaakios became "duke of Antioch after being elected by lot"Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Isaacium Comnenum Alexii fratrem" was declared "ducem Antiochi", after the death of protoprohedro Iosepho Trachaneota duce Antiochi when eius filius magister Catacalo was unable to control riots in the town, dated to The Alexeiad records that he was granted the new title of sbastokrator by his brother Emperor Alexios I in 1081, combining the words sbastos and autokrator, in order to give him precedence over their brother-in-law Nikeforos Melissenos.