Some have attempted to suggest that because Romans 13:1-7 is not found in Marcion's edition of the New Testament, it is therefore spurious. 13:7 Give back to all people what is owed; taxes to whom taxes are due; revenue to whom revenue is due, respect to whom respect is due and honor to whom honor is due. The reason Paul commands the Roman Christians to submit to the authorities is because civil authority is God's institution and as such will punish wrongdoers and praise those who do good (13:1-5). Paul commands the Roman Christians to submit to civil authority because God has appointed that authority (1-2a). Paul commands the Roman Christians to submit to civil authority because the civil authorities will punish those who resist them (2b-3a) and praise and do good to them that obey (2b-4). Paul commands the Roman Christians to submit to civil authority because of the punitive action of the state (i.e. There has been an ongoing discussion in scholarly circles with regards to the composition of the church in Rome. But the question remains as to composition of the church in Rome. Romans appears to be addressed to a mixed audience of Jewish and Gentile Christians. ) the Gentiles were in the majority and in positions of leadership in the church. 16: 5, 10b, 11), it seems rather safe to conclude at this point, that there was no central organization per se, or a central place of worship. Marcus Borg suggests the possibility that Jewish nationalism had reached violent levels in Rome and for that reason the Jews were expelled and that such a situation forms the background to Romans 13:1-7. The expulsion occurred some eight years prior and there doesn't appear to be any concrete evidence to demonstrate that such was the case in A. He claims that certain Christian enthusiasts had thrown off all restraint in the light of their heavenly calling and regarded "earthly authorities with indifference or contempt. Subject/Complement: The reason the Roman Christians should submit to the governing authorities and give them their proper due is because the authorities have been appointed by God (as attested by conscience) and will praise those who do good and inflict punishment (i.e. The letter was probably written to the church at Rome in the late winter/early spring of A. 57 so we can safely say that there were some Jews back in the city after being expelled due to the edict of Claudius in A. Due to the emphasis on the Gentiles, as indicated above, as well as Paul's personal call to the Gentile mission (), it would appear that the Gentiles were in the majority. This may be true, but it is difficult to defend from within or outside of the passage. paragraph) deep within the paraenetic section of 12:1- is somehow an interpolation due to the questionable nature of chapter 16—an epistolary ending. The problem with chapter 16 cannot be assumed to have occurred in 13:1-7. Does this mean that we should on that basis question its authenticity? and ) of the gospel to all people as outlined in the book of Romans clearly indicates its worldwide agenda. This, then, leads to the inevitable question of the relation of Christians to the state or governing authorities. We may proceed with the confidence that this passage is truly from the hand of Paul. Others have followed in a similar vein for various reasons including the assumption that the letter reads better if understood to refer to a Jewish Christian audience well as the fact that he says that he explicitly addresses them as Gentiles () and says that they have received mercy due to Jewish unbelief—all this seems to indicate a Gentile audience. From the lack of a reference to the church at Rome (i.e. Nero was in power, but in the early part of his reign (A. but this does not appear to be relevant at the time of the writing of Romans.
Kallas gives two general and three specific reasons for concluding that Romans 13:1-7 is an interpolation.
Paul's letters are occasional documents and the fact that he mentions something only once can more properly be explained as due to the occasion of that particular case. "Render to Caesar." In Jesus and the Politics of His Day.
He mentions the Lord's supper only once (1 Cor -34).
We live in a generation in which public opinion of those in political leadership is probably at an all time low.
There are a number of reasons for this, including what appears to many as a "crisis in character." In any event, this is, generally speaking, the situation.